Michael's E-learning & Digital Cultures Blog

Week 12 Lifestream Summary: Mobile Interaction and Wifi Enabled Hotspots in Hotel Rooms

December 11, 2010 · No Comments

I always wanted to be a bishop.

My Week 12 for #ededc was one huge workaround, but rather than bemoan the darkness I will celebrate the light of mobile workarounds for Wifi limitations. I was in Doha, Qatar all week for the #WISE2010 Conference on educational innovation. I will post to my own blog about some of the things I learned there, but for the most part the conference itself did not really address matters relevant to digital cultures. Hence, I thought I would focus my comments here on the uncanny and the interaction made possible through a mediated blend of reality, perception, and technology.

  • Mobile is a lifeline- without my Blackberry, I would have had zero interaction with #ededc. I attempted to appropriate some of the computer stations they had scattered throughout the conference, but that didn’t feel entirely conducive to a reflective blog post, especially with a queue behind me waiting to use it as well. With my Blackberry, I was able to interact with my wife (Gmail chat) in realtime, interact with #ededc through Twitter and Tumblr (but the Wordpress app I tried to use to post was proving entirely unstable-lost 3 posts that way). I was able to take pictures, send those to Tumblr and Twitter, and even take shots of the plane before takeoff to assuage the concerns of my wife. Without my mobile device, I would have been eerily alone. With it, I traveled with my network and felt calmer for the experience.
  • Hotel Wifi is an illusion-despite repeated claims that the hotel did indeed have it, I was unable to access the hotel wifi until the last day when I discovered it was indeed enabled for a 2 ft. square section of the room right next to the door. And only when standing up. So, I called my wife on Skype until my legs grew tired. Productivity declined as a result as eventually my thumbs grew tired on the Blackberry. However, this gave me a good opportunity to watch Syrian, Lebanese, Saudi Arabian, and Qatari television, which proved just as good as it sounds. I love foreign television dramas, if only for the giggles. I did this in Korea consistently, as well as in my travels in Africa, and it is wonderfully revealing of the country’s values as well as how universal all of it is. We all dramatize the same themes. Either way, Syrian music television in particular is a delight.

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Both feel like television we know, but are entirely foreign. Uncanny.

  • Life is uncanny- speaking of the uncanny of the virtual, I am delighted by the uncanny of mobile. Not only was I able to interact with wife, work, #ededc, I was also able to participate in a workshop that I was supposed to be administering and attending in India on digital futures for higher education that my organization had organized. So from Doha, I twittered my findings relevant to India to the #digitalindia hashtag, which then immediately became part of the discussion there. It was uncanny in that my view of myself was akin to that of a router, sending packets of information in at least 4 different directions. Yet I was entirely situated in Doha. Also, the simplest of things like the Google homepage becomes like the image below. Familiar, yet different.
  • Tumblr is adept at allowing for mobility- Tumblr is especially good at capturing the mobile experience, allowing for images, videos, quotes, even audio posts, all possible through the rudimentary Blackberry device. It perfectly captured my impressions on the road. Without it, my interaction with #ededc would have been limited to Twitter and its 140 characters.

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Final Lifestream Review: Goodbye

December 11, 2010 · No Comments

Well, how does one put in 500 words the Lifestream experience as it has been for #ededc? This reflection, pedagogically necessary and educationally valuable, is also extraordinarily difficult. The sheer scope and depth of what we worked through conceptually, the multiple learning constructs, the ferocity of endless interaction and communication. Quite proud to be a part of this group. Perhaps this emotional indication, pride, is a good place to start in review. In essence, my Lifestream is a representation of my learning mediated through interaction with people and mediated by content and technology. It produced a heady affect.

However, the learning of most significance to me, learning that is hopefully portrayed in my Lifestream can generally be broken down into the following categories:

  • The audacity of multimodality
  • Virtual Communities: Embedded
  • Cyborgs, Posthumans, and Flaneurs: Boundary Negotiation

The audacity of multimodality

This particular section resonated quite a bit for me as it felt like I received pedagogical and critical cover for exploring non-textual formats as legitimate intellectual constructs. We pursued image, audio, and video based expressions as cohesive representations (the visual artifact).

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I became convinced in this section of the course that a> I am a Prezi fanatic and b>only through the inclusion of all our senses will we as learners be able to represent knowledge (even truth) systematically, comprehensively. Virtual learning especially lends itself to a particularly complex process of sensemaking and knowledge production and relying solely on text for analysis of this complexity is absurd. As learners, we must pursue a comprehensive representation, even if we cannot reach that goal.

In this section, I tried to elude the dystopian vision of the future as advanced in popular and academic culture and preferred a more measured utopian view, that the future will be similar to much of the present. Humans striking a fluid balance between themselves and their ecosystems, whether virtual or physical (and whether that distinction even matters anymore).

Virtual Communities: Embedded

Our exploration of virtual communities in the middle sections of the course was an exploration, in my opinion, in the emotive properties of what makes a community a community. This was pursued through a community revolving around a geographical location (Africa), yet thoroughly international in participation. It was only through later understanding (signs, symbols, and psychical not material location) that I understood eLearning Africa as a conceptual location, one with an allure and emotional property divorced (or perhaps askance) from its geographical location. I am indebted to the lessons I gleaned later in the following articles, which helped me allow for a emotional “location” askew from the physical one:

  • Bayne, S. (2010). Academetron, automaton, phantom: uncanny digital pedagogies. London Review of Education,8/1, 5-13.
  • Hayles, N.K. (1999). Toward embodied virtuality, chapter 1 of How we became posthuman: virtual bodies in cybernetics, literature and informatics. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. pp1-25

Ethnographically, and this builds on the notion of multimodality, the readings and interactions for #ededc helped me to trust in the “authority” of audio, video, and images as representations of a community and motivation for participation. It was at this stage that I began to experiment with audio posts (via Tumblr) as an ethnographic expression of my own participation in this eLearning Africa community, culminating in my final Prezi (no surprise there).

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Cyborgs, Posthumans, and Flaneurs: Boundary Negotiation

The virtual communities exploration, by allowing for an alternative “location”, actually proved quite useful as a primer for the next significant discussion on cyborg, posthuman, and my personal favorite, the flaneur. This was significant as it identified more of the future type directions as well as possible fracture points in this construction of self and the individual learner (distributed consciousness, etc.). The flaneur as learning role actually proved quite a good key to unlocking this discussion for me as it allowed for a human exploration of the landscape of digital cultures, one disregarding boundaries and free to explore the environment rhizomically.

This role of the flaneur is being investigated further in my final assignment for #ededc, an exploration of cultural heritage studies and augmented reality and the role of the flaneur in navigating that landscape. Hopefully, it proves a culminating experience for all we have investigated in this course.

All this being said, I will miss these people and these interactions tremendously. If any of you want to collaborate on anything, ever, my virtual door is always open. Never hesitate to reach out.

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Lifestream Summary for Week 11

December 4, 2010 · No Comments

First off, is it really Week 11, let alone the end of it? I have this lurking belief that if this particular course were 120 weeks long, I wouldn’t grow tired of it. If I were forced to spend the next year and a half with this group of people, I would never be at a loss for something to talk about, some idea to bounce around. It has been an education and an honor.

This week saw a sharp uptick in the number of Delicious links populating my Lifestream summary as I am doing my research for the final assignment on Cultural Heritage Studies and Augmented Reality and Learning Roles. All fascinating stuff and this is pushing me a bit towards something I had discussed before on this blog (when I was referencing Jen) about the role of mischief and play in elearning. It is my belief that virtual graffiti, as an expression of affect and interaction, is actually a valuable learning expression and representation made possible through augmented reality and mobile learning. Think of virtual annotations, but meant to rearrange, reconfigure, and represent. And sometimes very messy. I think the role of the flaneur will play in here as well in regards to (urban) cultural heritage studies, meandering through the city and learning of its past, present, and future, almost simultaneously.


However, this week wasn’t all just for the final assignment. Some good exchanges on the blogs, on Twitter, and with James for this project we are working on how students define their study space. If you haven’t had a chance to take the polls, click on the link below and give it a try.


This is all part of a presentation that James and I will be doing (we each have our individual parts) at the IT Futures Conference at Edinburgh in mid-December. I think James will be there in person talking about the student space and my contribution will be pre-recorded video, which coincidentally enough, I am providing below in case anyone wants to hear me ramble on for 9 minutes on how much I love geography. Also, in case anyone hadn’t heard my actual voice to this point, it should illustrate how goofy I can get about maps/locations/geography.


These are my major contributions to the Lifestream for Week 11.

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Off to Doha, Qatar: Mobile Interaction

December 3, 2010 · No Comments

I am heading off to JFK Airport this weekend in a rather inconvenient section of Queens (ie all of Queens), New York to travel to Doha, Qatar, for the 2010 World Innovation Summit for Education (WISE) where I am representing this site and community that I have invested quite a bit of my professional and emotional energy in over the course of the last few years.

I will be there for the whole of Week 12 for #ededc, so most of my posts will of the mobile variety, via my smartphone and more than likely on Tumblr. I will certainly blog as well and interact as much as possible, but perhaps less than I do now. However to be true to an ethnographic exploration of a new location and community, I go with technology that captures authentic expressions of situatedness.

I go armed with my

  • MacBook Pro (with video and camera recording)
  • Digital Camera
  • Flip Video Camera
  • Blackberry (issued through work)

Overkill perhaps, but that allows for quite a bit of multimodal investigation of the lay of the Qatari land in the midst of their World Cup festivities.

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Expect a Flickr set, perhaps a Vimeo recording or two, and some pithy commentary on the ethnographic nature of conference life. As a veteran of this purported field, I can attest to the architecture of conference facilities and hotel lobbies, the uncanniness of single serve coffee dispensers in hotel rooms (feels like home, but it isn’t!), and airport buses and waiting areas. My iPod is at the ready, armed with enough ambience to walk me through the insanity from the last time I encountered a society mad with World Cup fever.

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I was literally teaching in a building right across the street from this celebration (to one student who didn’t enjoy the whole World Cup thing) and was unable to make it home for at least five hours after this event. Ended up walking all the way across town, ethnographically noting my fatigue as an indication of my role as participant  in the community.

Pedagogically, besides all the great conference events, I am excited to continue some of our collaboration from a different location, much as James had as he has been making his way through various European locations over the course of the semester. In fact, James and I are continuing our collaboration for the EDCSpace site and planning next steps for feedback and community exploration. Being situated physically is a state of mind sometimes. More from the road.

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Sound as constant; metronome as metaphor

December 2, 2010 · No Comments

Was just thinking a bit after I posted on Twitter about a particular song I was listening to and how that represented a sonic learning experience, an exploration of sonic space kind of befitting a posthuman digital learning experience. This is rather rudimentary observation and one dealt with much better by my classmates weeks back when we did our first project on visual artefacts, but does sound represent a constant of sorts? Sorry if I am rehashing old ground, but this might have some application to my final project on augmented reality and urban cultural heritage studies.

First, perhaps listen to the abbreviated version of the song:


We discussed earlier in the ethnographic sections about the authority of sound for ethnographic observation and that makes perfect sense, but in that instance it was perhaps more as an instrument of authenticity and not representation or sensemaking. In my foggy idea, it is a pure exploration of space and representation. It soars, dips, searches, meanders, yet remains close to this repetitive constant, this rhythm. It is the audible exploration of the flaneur.

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Now, anyone who has listened to music knows what “moves” people changes dramatically from region to region, country to country. Ever heard a Chinese opera? Even the Chinese find that difficult to appreciate. An appreciation of one country’s music does not always equate to an emotional gravity in the other. Subject to the ear of the listener and all that. But, and this is just conjecture, is there a constant, somewhat muted, international pulse to sound, a global rhythm that we are all merely building off of. I suspect it all has to do with the beating heart (not metaphorically, like literally the heart beating in time) that we are all governed by, but I wonder.

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The above is not Chinese opera, but rather Korean pansori, but still an acquired taste.

Does sound represent an immutable constant? I can imagine this changing with further cyborg prosthesis additions, but perhaps sonic explorations are the least subjective learning environments as they are all rooted in physiological processes. I am just continuing my tradition here of asking way more questions than I could ever answer.

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Building Rome on a Cloudless Day

November 30, 2010 · 2 Comments

A friend brought this to my attention as he happened to know of my interest in urban cultural heritage and mobile augmented reality for the #ededc final assignment. This is a project at the University of North Carolina that essentially is using openly available Flickr photos to “build” highly complex 3D cities in an automated fashion. Using millions of images and a single personal computer, the algorithm can essentially build one of these sophisticated models in under a day. In this instance, Rome is built with only freely accessible Flickr images (over a million of them).

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According to the article in ReadWriteWeb (fantastic site, by the way), which is quoting the lead researcher Jan-Michael Frahm:

“Our technique would be the equivalent of processing a stack of photos as high as the 828-meter Dubai Towers, using a single PC, versus the next best technique, which is the equivalent of processing a stack of photos 42 meters tall – as high as the ceiling of Notre Dame – using 62 PCs. This efficiency is essential if one is to fully utilize the billions of user-provided images continuously being uploaded to the Internet.”

So, what does this mean for posthuman, cyborg, or any other pedagogies? As far as I am concerned, it extends the perception of the (post)human, allowing for complicated representations to be crafted based on a mixture of want and need (I want to see a rendering of Paris) and automated algorithms (now technology, go do that for me). Imagine a flaneur (as in literally wandering the streets) that never sets foot in the material city of investigation. Granted, a flaneur does that now for constructs and power dynamics, language, and so forth, but this is a good step forward for spatial studies, especially those only liminally related to science (more Humanities based fields). You could add further layers of context to this image construct.

  • Sound- imagine audio of the streets, the cars, the noise, the vendors, the markets, the sirens.
  • Video-embed video right along with the images. See space and time intersect.
  • Contextual information-temperature, weather, history, architecture

It is basically a step towards virtual systems that can not only represent, but mediate to some degree of completeness the affect of humans. We are in this stage of technology and crowd participation where we are fascinated with just getting it out there, connecting, looking, pondering. This is the next phase, the construction of complex systems to mirror the governing dynamics of communities.

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The role of mischief in a posthuman pedagogy

November 29, 2010 · 2 Comments

After making my way through the reading, the posts (including my own), and the comments for this week on a posthuman pedagogy, I started to connect these with my own choice for the final assignment, the use of augmented reality mobile applications for cultural heritage studies. There are a lot of similarities here and a few made me remember some of the works we reviewed in #idel (I personally took it, along with many of my classmates here, in 2009). In keeping with speaking of our instructors in the third person, Michael Gallagher (zing) remembers a paper that was pointed to in IDEL from one Jen Ross.

Structure, authority and other noncepts: teaching in fool-ish spaces

The paper takes a jester’s, trickster’s and fool’s look at teaching in online spaces. We argue that teaching in digital environments is different and requires different attitudes and strategies than its offline counterpart. We use archetypal, literary and historical characters of the fool, jester and trickster as metaphors to explore issues of authority, risk, innocence, fun, complexity, liminality and absurdity (Ross).

Wow. That sort of sounds like a fairly good series of roles for a posthuman pedagogy, doesn’t it? Throw in the flaneur and I think we have enough to incur as many boundary crossings as our posthuman hearts desire. Risk? Fun? Absurdity? Emotive properties of digital or even hybrid environments. Jester, trickster, fool, flaneur? All vehicles of affect, change agents.

Kilroy Was Here, a graffiti attacking earnestness. Entirely playful and simultaneously subversive. A good metaphor for posthuman learning.

What particularly resonated with me was the sense of mischief, a playful energy with a negative connotation. How mischief could be used to great affect and effect in mediated mobile augmented reality environments. I immediately thought of virtual graffiti and how cultural heritage itself could embody the mischief, or at least house all its examples. What if we had the ability to virtually spraypaint the Mona Lisa? Or write Gallagher Was Here on the Brooklyn Bridge? Or scribble “freedom” on the hard concrete of Tiananmen Square? I recoil at the thought (I emotively retreat) of graffiti as “damage”, but warm to the thought of graffiti as representation, a learning artifact in and of itself. I recoil only because it is disquieting, but does this disquiet, discomfort imply a liminal approach, a boundary crossing? Doesn’t it at least signal a desire for one?

Isn’t this the sense of liminality we want to construct in our posthuman pedagogies in higher education? To hold no artifice so dear as to not be open to our interpretation, our mediation, and allow its strength to flow to us? With mobile, augmented reality, and perhaps an inoccuous graffiti application, perhaps we could counter our own cultures in an attempt to mediate a future of learning.


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Constructing (my)self

November 28, 2010 · 2 Comments

This post is basically a response and continuation of James’ post on a posthuman pedagogy specifically geared towards an upcoming event that he and I are contributing to. I wanted to bring part of the discussion here as the comments box felt limiting (to own sense of unwarranted grandeur). So, I will spend some time responding to James here.

I think the manner in which Michael will be contributing to the Conference could be seen as posthuman. I’m not going to prejudge what Michael might offer, however its perfectly conceivable that his contribution could be made without appearing on screen or using voice. In this example, the academic conference delegate becomes information rather than a corporeal body. Taken to the nth degree (and using Hayles’ argument) we could question whether Michael exists at all in a physical sense.

Now, I do exist (or do I?), but I have been working on my part of the contribution, which will be prerecorded. So I could be done already without anyone knowing it. In fact, I recorded it years ago in the anticipation that I would be asked. That is how buoyant an ego I have over here. To be serious though, James is right. I had fully anticipated not using any realtime physical manifestation of myself, as in video. I was, however, going to use my voice and that can be jarring and that has partly to do with expectation.

A mosaic of self.

You all know me and I know you as voiceless creatures, voiceless in the sense of audio. I have heard some of you speak ever so briefly on Second Life, but just for mere seconds. In this video, I will more or less speak for five minutes. I cannot pretend that everyone is particularly interested in listening to this, but I find that the “real” voice and my imagined version of someone’s voice never match. Our imagination is just too omnipotent. You will learn, I suspect, from the recording that I am

  • excitable/passionate (depending on which slant you want to give my energy)
  • a fast talker (I had to script what I am going to say, otherwise it would meandered 25 times into side conjecture and mental association)
  • a bit of a goofball (not sure if that is endearing or not)

Now what disquiet, disconnect, or disillusionment will that cause in my representation at Edinburgh? Will it reveal any semblance of the “real” me? Will it prove that I exist at all?

Now within the EDC classroom, we’ve seen what we presume to be Michael’s portrait and avatar. We’ve also seen his ideas in written and visual form. But can we confidently conclude from the evidence on screen that Michael exists in reality, or is the digital trail he has left behind the product of consciousness that exists purely within a computer?

Once again, James has a point. How can you trust that I exist? How do I know that any of you exist? What does it matter if you are chasing a digital trail, a phantom? I know I am mediated by you and perhaps you by me and we exist surely in conjunction. But really the question here is what does it mean to know, ontological to the core.

In the posthuman classroom, the corporeality of the student is less important than the ‘information patterns’ he/she/it produces. I think our EDC class is a classic example of this. We’ve never seen Michael Sean Gallagher in the flesh, but does that really matter?

James is right again. Does that really matter? There is a construct named Michael Sean Gallagher that does exist, is present, and embodied, and engaged, and communicative. That is the construct that matters, despite if I make it slightly askew from my physical self. I, as we all are, am an open book, but there are a lot of pages in there, all as real as the next.

This thread had me thinking further about a posthuman pedagogy of construction. If I were my fellow classmates, how would I construct me? What would the construction of an entity for mediation look like? What would I want to see in something that I knew would change me in every interaction? What would the perfect colleague/companion look like in a posthuman learning environment? Maybe that is the Michael Sean Gallagher I am projecting, or trying to.

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Week 10 Lifestream Summary: Posthuman Pedagogy

November 27, 2010 · 4 Comments

This week was spent mostly moving through Bayne’s “Academetron, automaton, phantom: uncanny digital pedagogies” in my posts for the Wordpress blog as well as Edwards’ The end of lifelong learning: A post-human condition? Studies in the Education of Adults”, but more in a way that informs rather than overtly draws from. Both proved interesting in terms of repositioning pedagogy in a posthuman context.

The Wordpress posts themselves dealt mostly with aspects of Academetron in that pursuit of the uncanny as a vehicle for learning. This builds quite a bit on Meyer, J.H.F. and Land, R. (2003), “Threshold concepts and troublesome knowledge” in the idea that crossing boundaries represents a real opportunity for learning. This pursuit of troublesome knowledge, learning that aggressively removes our sense of familiarity with the learning itself, poses a real opportunity for higher education. Higher education is often a conglomerate of disciplinary silos (not Edinburgh, of course) and these silos define space, relationships, language, and knowledge itself. A posthuman pedagogy, one that specifically embraces ephemeral connections and elusive boundaries, defies these silos and makes association across disciplines and spaces as it sees fit.

So we are left with the pursuit of affect, which essentially is what the uncanny, disquiet, unfamiliar landscapes of online learning produces. It is visceral and violent to some degree, emotive surely, a knowledge formed from rapid associations of people and content. It is the harbinger of a “newness” that speaks to learning online. A pedagogy might do worse than looking to affective elements as a gauge of learning.

In my posthuman pedagogy example, I chose to look at the combination of media as a vehicle for producing affect. These different forms of video produce “little war machines” that bring about a sense of “newness” in knowledge. This was illustrated, rather rudimentarily, in my posthuman example through the work of James Joyce and Ulysses, that swirling miasma of sight, sound, and smell, of both material and psychical realities. This built on some of the posts I did this week pointing the psychical relationship I, as a student, have to the University of Edinburgh. A symbol divorced from a material meaning, it acts as a beacon of esteemed learning perhaps. It is murky, but I am drawn to it like a pilgrim to a holy site. It illuminates my way through these uncanny online spaces.

Speaking of uncanny, did anyone think this is what James Joyce sounded like? The audio is an old recording he did of some of his works.

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Engaged purposefully: a pedagogy emerges

November 25, 2010 · No Comments

Just like Shields, I am not quite ready to let go of (Sian!) Bayne’s work on digital pedagogy. I could whirl in the abstract for post after endless post, but I do think approaching posthuman pedagogy from the aspect of institution and affect and association has merit as an entry point for learning.

If the learner association, posthuman or otherwise, has very little or no association with the institution of higher education, then the impetus for reinvigorating the mission and scope of the university falls back to the university itself, not necessarily the learner. If the learner can break through or ignore boundaries of space, role, and association, then the university itself will need to adjust to that “new” learner. However, there is a lot of potential that some universities are starting to explore, Edinburgh included. It is a chance to not merely expand scope of impact, but rather to permeate the very fabric of learning. To be a viral, fluid institution embedded in a fluid, viral learning landscape. But first, to the article!

What would a digital pedagogy look like which engaged purposefully with this fluid, haunted space? It would be one defined, perhaps, by remoteness and spectrality – one in which the material ‘distancing’ of teacher from student and student from student was not seen as a question of compromise (distance learning as ‘second best’) but as a positive embrace of a different kind of presence, one which opens up new ways of defining and re-thinking ‘contact’. As Ascott (2003) has written:

It’s not simply that many colleges are haunted by the ghosts of culture past, but that apparitions of the future are emerging on every screen, in every network. These apparitions are the constructions of distributed mind, the coming-into-being of new forms of human presence, half-real, half-virtual, new forms of social relationships, realized in telepresence, set in cyberspace. (18; quoted in Kocchar-Lindgren 2009, 8) (8)

Remoteness and spectrality-distancing as a means to extended presence and perhaps even as a focus of learning itself. This is most certainly part of it, this pursuit of remoteness. Or perhaps even a cyborg appropriation of what it means to be present itself. As a cyborg might say, “these are all my realms, all simultaneously. I do not see dualism in their division, their categorization. I accept their contradictions as a possible fuel for learning.”

Perhaps the university, itself haunted by the “ghosts of the culture past”, can embrace remoteness and spectrality as verdant environments, one which will both mediate institutional presence and be mediated by it. A branch campus. An overseas office. New “local” realities mediated by the university and the learning community, all nodes of remoteness and spectrality. If this were a corporation, it might be metaphorically seen as the embrace of the Hong Kong office running 14 hours ahead of New York City time, working as we sleep, sleeping as we work, different lunches, coffee breaks, office cultures. All driving towards common purpose. The same to be said with the university. A thousand flavors on a larger unified entity. Remoteness and spectrality are certainly parts of that.

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I am also quite interested in the “new forms of social relationships” that can emerge out of these forms of human presence as in my own experience I found this to be quite true. I feel as though I know you all on some level, but that knowledge isn’t mediated by physical or material realities (maybe WebCT or this Wordpress instance could be seen as a surrogate material reality), but rathe psychical ones. These are bonds of shared purpose and culture, shared expectations, and strong communal loyalty. It pushes me further and faster than I would have been able to travel independently as I fear and embrace my classmates expectations of me as both participant (provider of perception and stimulus) and learner (I get the sense we all care about each other’s development). I do believe this represents a familiar, yet relatively novel social relationship and hierarchy. Exploration of these relationships as agents of affect, emotional or intellectual, would be a good component of any posthuman pedagogy.

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